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Chain of custody
The path taken by raw materials, process materials and products, from the forest to the consumer, including all successive stages of processing, transformation, manufacturing and distribution.

Endangered Forest
High Conservation Value Forests (or parts thereof) that are so rare, threatened, or ecologically vulnerable, and are of such global biological importance that any logging or commercial use could irreparably damage their conservation value.

Forest Certification
Is the process by which the environmental, social, and economic integrity of forest management is measured and verified by a credible third party

Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
Is an independent , membership-based organization that brings people together to promote responsible management of the World’s forest through developing standards, a certification system, and trademark recognition. It provides accreditation services for companies and organizations interested in responsible forestry.

A product, process or service that has been certified by an FSC-accredited certification body as being in compliance with an applicable FSC-endorsed standard.

FSC-eligible products
Products that are approved by an FSC-accredited certification body as being covered by the scope of a chain of custody certificate, AND that meet the minimum content requirements for FSC labeling.

FSC-pure wood/fibre
Virgin or fibre wood which originates from an FSC-certified forest and is sold as ‘Pure wood/fibre’ by the holder of a valid FSC chain of custody or joint forest management and chain of custody certificate.

Post-Consumer Waste
Recovered paper material of those products generated by business or consumers which have served their intended end uses, and which have been separated or diverted from solid waste for the purpose of collection and recycling.

Pre-Consumer Waste
Paper generated after completion of the paper making process but never reaching the consumer. This waste can be mill broke or paper waste returned to the mill as a pulp substitute.

The Sustainable Forestry Initiative program is a comprehensive system of principles, objectives, and performance measures developed by foresters, conservationists, and scientists, that combines the perpetual growing and harvesting of trees with the protection of wildlife, plants, soil, and water quality.

Recycled fibre
Fibre which has been reclaimed from a previous product and reprocessed and incorporated into a new product. Sources of fibre for recycling may be reclaimed pre-consumer or reclaimed post-consumer material.

Virgin wood
Wood, whether in the form of round wood, sawn wood, or industrial co-products or by-products which are traceable to forest sources.

Hierarchy of Pulping and Bleaching Processes
Processed Chlorine Free (PCF) and Totally Chlorine Free (TCF)*

* Completely substitutes oxygen-based compounds for chlorine compounds.
* The terms PCF and TCF refer to paper produced without chlorine or chlorine compounds. As used in the market today, PCF paper is preferable because it contains recycled fibre, while TCF refers only to 100% virgin paper.

Enhanced ECF with ozone or hydrogen peroxide
Uses ozone or hydrogen peroxide as brightening agent in initial stages of bleaching processes. (Final or near final stage uses chlorine dioxide.)

ECF with extended or oxygen delignification (“enhanced ECF”)
Removes more of the lignin before bleaching, thus reducing energy and chemical use during bleaching process. (Final stage uses chlorine dioxide.)

Elemental Chlorine Free (“traditional ECF”)
Replaces elemental chlorine with chlorine dioxide.

Elemental Chlorine
Uses elemental chlorine to bleach pulp. In the U.S. elemental chlorine was phased out as of April 2001 per EPA’s Cluster Rule.
* Source: The Environmental Paper Summit, 2002

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